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23 儊僇僕僉 杒戝惣梞

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嵟嬤堦擭娫偺摦偒

2012擭搙偼杒戝惣梞偺儊僇僕僉偺帒尮昡壙偼峴傢傟偰偄側偄丅嵟屻偵奐嵜偝傟偨2009擭廐偺帒尮昡壙偵偍偄偰丄尰嵼偺帒尮検偼丄偍偦傜偔1990擭戙拞婜偵弌尰偟偨戩墇擭媺孮偲嬤擭偺嫏妉検偺尭彮偵傛偭偰夞暅偟偨偙偲偑帵偝傟偨丅戝惣梞傑偖傠椶曐懚崙嵺埾堳夛乮ICCAT乯偼丄杮帒尮偺嵞惗嶻椡偲MSY傪偦傟偧傟r=0.44丄13,730僩儞偲悇掕偟偨忋偱TAC傪13,700僩儞埲壓偵梷偊傞偙偲丄彫宆屄懱偺嫏妉検惂尷傪宲懕偡傞傛偆姪崘傪弌偟偨丅2013擭廐偵杒戝惣梞偺儊僇僕僉偺帒尮昡壙偑峴傢傟傞梊掕偱偁傞丅


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恾1. 崙暿嫏妉検偺擭悇堏乮ICCAT 2012乯
2011擭偺抣偼巄掕抣丅


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昞1. 嬤擭偺崙暿嫏妉検媦傃搳婞検乮僩儞乯乮ICCAT 2012乯


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恾2. 庡側嫏嬈崙偵偍偗傞杒戝惣梞儊僇僕僉偺嫏妉棪乮婎弨壔偟偰偁傞乯乮ICCAT 2012乯


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恾3. 戝惣梞偵偍偗傞嫏朄偛偲偺儊僇僕僉偺椵愊嫏妉検乮2000乣2009擭偺崌寁乯偺暘晍恾乮ICCAT 2012乯
惵偑偼偊撽嫏朄丄敀偑偦偺懠偺嫏朄偵傛傞嫏妉検傪帵偡丅墌偺戝偒偝偼嫏妉検偺憡懳揑側斾傪昞偡丅撿杒偺宯孮偼杒堒5搙乮懢慄乯偱巇愗傜傟偰偄傞丅


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恾4. 杒戝惣梞儊僇僕僉偺惉挿嬋慄乮Eharhardt et al. 1996乯


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昞2. 儊僇僕僉偺惈暿擭楊暿壓妠嵆挿乮cm乯乮Eharhardt et al. 1996乯


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恾5. 杮帒尮偺暘晍


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恾6. 杒戝惣梞儊僇僕僉偺悈堟暿暘晍宍懺 乮Ortiz et al. 2000乯
僄儕傾7丒8丒17偼嶻棏堟丄1񑓛񓝕293偼愛塧堟丄4񒎢1091偼堏峴堟傪昞偡丅


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恾7. 億僢僾傾僢僾傾乕僇僀僶儖僞僌偵傛傞儊僇僕僉偺墧捈峴摦僷僞乕儞
乮Matsumoto et al. 2003乯嵍偺恾偼悈怺傪塃偺恾偼悈壏傪昞偡丅2002擭3寧偵僟僇乕儖壂偱 憖嬈拞偺擔杮偺偼偊撽嫏慏偱嫏妉偝傟偨屄懱乮悇掕壓妠嵆挿160 cm乯偐傜摼傜傟偨僨乕僞偵婎偯偄偰嶌恾丅


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恾8. 僾儘僟僋僔儑儞儌僨儖偱悇掕偝傟偨帒尮検乮嵍乯偲嫏妉巰朣棪乮塃乯乮ICCAT 2009乯
帒尮検偺扨埵偼僩儞丄揰慄偼80亾怣棅尷奅傪帵偡丅


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恾9. VPA偺儀乕僗働乕僗偱悇掕偝傟偨嶻棏恊嫑検偺朙搙曄壔乮ICCAT 2009乯


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恾10. 堦掕偺嫏妉検乮Y幉丗TAC乯偵懳偡傞B亜BMSY丄F亙FMSY偲側傞妋棪傪帵偡摍崅慄恾乮ICCAT 2012乯
愒丒墿怓丒椢偺晹暘偼偦傟偧傟B亜BMSY丄F亙FMSY偲側傞妋棪偑50%埲壓丄 50-75%丄75%埲忋傪帵偡丅

嫏嬈偺奣梫

杒戝惣梞偺儊僇僕僉偼丄偐偮偰暷崙偵偍偄偰嬝擏偵悈嬧偑懡偔娷傑傟偰偄傞偲偄偆棟桼偱悈梘偘偑嬛巭偝傟偰偄偨偑丄偦偺屻婯惂偑娚榓偝傟偨偨傔偵丄1970擭戙屻敿偐傜嫏妉検偑媫憹偟丄1987擭偵僺乕僋乮20,236僩儞乯偵払偟偨丅

夁嫀10擭偺暯嬒嫏妉検偼11,530僩儞偱丄2011擭偺嫏妉検偼巰朣搳婞傕娷傔偰12,836僩儞偲悇掕偝傟偨丅偙傟偼丄夁嫀嵟崅傪婰榐偟偨1987擭偺37%尭偱偁傝丄婯惂偺岠壥偲嫏慏偺撿戝惣梞媦傃戝惣梞奜傊偺堏摦偵傛傞傕偺偲峫偊傜傟傞丅傑偨丄廬棃儊僇僕僉傪愱栧偵嫏妉偟偰偄偨僇僫僟丄僗儁僀儞丄暷崙媦傃億儖僩僈儖偺偼偊撽嫏慏偼丄宱嵪揑側棟桼偱懳徾嫑庬傪傑偖傠椶媦傃偝傔椶偵曄峏偟偰偄傞丅2002擭埲崀偵曬崘偝傟偨嫏妉検偼2005擭傑偱娚傗偐側憹壛孹岦偵偁偭偨偑丄嬤擭偼11,500乣12,500僩儞偺娫偱憹尭傪孞傝曉偟偰偄傞乮恾1丄昞1乯丅嬤擭偺庡梫崙偵偍偗傞嫏妉棪偺孹岦偲偟偰偼丄1990擭戙屻敿埲崀憹壛傪帵偡崙偑懡偄傕偺偺丄暷崙偺堦晹偼丄斾妑揑暯扲側僩儗儞僪傪帵偟偰偄傞乮恾2乯丅偙偺尨場偑嬤擭偺婯惂偺曄壔偵傛傞傕偺偐偳偆偐偼丄崱屻専摙偑昁梫偱偁傞丅

杒戝惣梞乮抧拞奀彍偔乯偵偍偄偰丄杮庬偼傕偭傁傜晜偒偼偊撽偵傛偭偰嫏妉偝傟偰偄傞偑丄巋偟栐嫏嬈偵偍偄偰傕嫏妉偝傟偰偍傝丄慜慄堟傗奀嶳廃曈悈堟偵庡嫏応偑宍惉偝傟偰偄傞乮恾3乯丅偙偺偆偪丄暷崙丄僇僫僟丄僗儁僀儞丄億儖僩僈儖丄僽儔僕儖丄儌儘僢僐丄僫儈價傾丄撿傾僼儕僇丄僂儖僌傾僀媦傃儀僱僘僄儔偼丄儊僇僕僉傪愱栧偵慱偭偰憖嬈偡傞愺撽乮栭撽乯憖嬈偵傛傞嫏妉偑戝晹暘偱偁傞偺偵懳偟偰丄擔杮丄戜榩丄娯崙偼丄傑偖傠椶傪慱偭偨偼偊撽憖嬈乮擬懷堟偱偼怺撽憖嬈乯偵傛傞崿妉偱偁傞丅傑偨丄嬤擭偺帒尮悈弨偺埆壔傪庴偗偰丄擔杮丄暷崙丄僇僫僟丄僗儁僀儞偑師偺傛偆側帺庡婯惂傪峴偭偰偄傞丅


擔杮丟 擔杮偺偼偊撽嫏慏偼丄2000擭2寧傛傝嫏妉偝傟偨儊僇僕僉偺偆偪丄惗偒偰嫏妉偝傟偨屄懱偼曻棳偟丄巰朣屄懱偼奀忋搳婞偟偰偄傞丅2003擭傪傕偭偰偙偺慬抲偼夝彍偝傟偨偑丄擔杮惌晎偼帒尮曐岇偺娤揰偐傜2004擭埲崀傕惗偒偰嫏妉偝傟偨儊僇僕僉偺曻棳傪奺嫏慏偵媊柋偯偗偰偄傞丅側偍丄曻棳丒搳婞偝傟偨屄懱偺撪丄巰朣搳婞偝傟偨晹暘偩偗偑丄擔杮偺嫏妉偲偟偰ICCAT偺摑寁偵寁忋偝傟偰偄傞丅

暷崙丟暷崙偺偼偊撽嫏慏偼戝惣梞惣晹偱揥奐偝傟偰偍傝丄僉僴僟偲儊僇僕僉傪懳徾庬偲偟偰偄傞丅嫏妉婯惂丄嫑壙掅柪丄擱桘崅摣摍偵傛傝惽悢偼400偐傜120傑偱尭彮偟偨丅2001擭偐傜暷崙EEZ撪偵偍偄偰丄2偮偺奀嬫傪塱媣嬛嫏嬫偲偟偰儊僇僕僉彫宆嫑偺嫏妉傪婯惂偡傞偲嫟偵丄3偮偺奀嬫偱偼僋儘儅僌儘彫宆嫑曐岇偺偨傔偺嬛嫏婜偑愝掕偝傟偰偄傞丅偙偺懠丄2004擭偵偼惗懺宯娗棟傾僾儘乕僠偵偺偭偲傝丄僂儈僈儊摍偺崿妉惗暔偺巰朣棪掅尭偺偨傔暷崙偺墦梞偼偊撽嫏慏偵僒乕僋儖僼僢僋偺巊梡偑媊柋晅偗傜傟偨丅杒戝惣梞偱嫏妉偝傟傞儊僇僕僉偺嫏妉暔擭楊慻惉偼2乣3嵨嫑偑拞怱偱偁傞偑丄嬤擭暷崙偺偼偊撽嫏慏偑嫏妉偡傞儊僇僕僉偺暯嬒懱挿偺憹壛偑曬崘偝傟偰偄傞丅

僇僫僟丟僇僫僟偺儊僇僕僉嫏嬈偼丄2002擭偐傜ITQ乮Individual Transferable Quota乯僔僗僥儉傪摫擖偟丄僋僅乕僞偺10%偑撍偒傫朹丄90%偑偼偊撽偱嫏妉偝傟偰偄傞丅2010擭丄僇僫僟偺墦梞偼偊撽嫏慏偑嫏妉偟偰偄傞儊僇僕僉偺嫏妉棪偑峏怴偝傟丄1996擭埲崀偺嫏妉棪乮昗弨壔偟偰偄側偄乯偑憹壛孹岦偵偁傞偙偲偑帵偝傟偨丅偙偺曄壔偑帒尮娗棟偺岠壥偐憖嬈宍懺偺曄壔偵傛傞傕偺偐傪昡壙偡傞偨傔偵丄堷偒懕偒嫏妉棪偺摦岦傪儌僯僞乕偡傞昁梫偑偁傞丅傑偨丄ITQ惂搙偺摫擖偐傜堦掕偺擭悢偑宱夁偟偨尰嵼丄婯惂慜屻偺僨乕僞傪梡偄偰杮惂搙偺岠壥傪専摙偡傞昁梫偑巜揈偝傟偰偄傞丅2011擭偵峏怴偝傟偨丄偼偊撽偱嫏妉偝傟傞儊僇僕僉偺擭楊丒惈暿偺嫏妉棪偵傛傟偽丄掅悈弨傪帵偟偨2006擭埲崀丄憡懳朙搙偼1990擭偵婰榐偝傟偨儗儀儖傑偱憹壛偟偰偄傞偙偲偑帵偝傟偨丅

僗儁僀儞丟杒戝惣梞偱憖嬈偡傞偼偊撽嫏慏偺懡偔偼丄嫑壙偺曄摦偵懳墳偟偰暋悢嫑庬傪懳徾偲偟偨憖嬈傪峴偭偰偄傞丅傑偨丄嬤擭儌僲僼傿儔儊儞僩偺姴撽傪摫擖偟丄憖嬈偺岠棪壔傪恾偭偰偄傞丅

儊僇僕僉偼慜慄堟傗奀嶳廃曈偱懡偔嫏妉偝傟傞帠偑抦傜傟偰偄傞偑丄杒戝惣梞偱傕摨條偺悈堟偵庡嫏応偑宍惉偝傟偰偄傞乮恾2乯丅


惗暔妛揑摿挜

亂惉挿偲惉弉亃

儊僇僕僉偼丄庒楊帪偵惉挿偑憗偔丄帗梇偱惉挿偑堎側傝丄帗偼梇傛傝傕惉挿偑憗偔偐偮戝宆壔偡傞丅

杮庬偺擭楊嵏掕偵偮偄偰偼丄Eharhardt et al.乮1996乯偑丄2,000屄懱埲忋偺昗杮偵偮偄偰鋅昲戞2灆偵弌尰偡傞擭椫傪梡偄偰惉挿幃傪悇掕偟偰偄傞乮恾4丄昞2乯丅偙偺夝愅寢壥偼丄ICCAT偱嫏妉暔懱挿慻惉傪擭楊慻惉偵曄姺偡傞嵺偵梡偄傜傟偰偄傞丅偟偐偟偙偺夝愅寢壥偼丄嵟傕懡偔偺昗杮偵婎偯偄偨傕偺偱偁傞偑丄夝愅偵梡偄偨屄懱偺拞偵壓妠慡挿250 cm埲忋偺傕偺偑傎偲傫偳側偔丄帗偺戝宆屄懱偵娭偟偰丄悇掕惛搙偑埆偔側偭偰偄傞丅庻柦偼丄昗幆曻棳偺寢壥傛傝15擭埲忋偱偁傞偲悇掕偝傟偰偄傞丅

Mejuto and García-Cortés乮2007乯偵傛傞偲丄帗偺斏怋峴摦偼昞憌悈偺悈壏偲娭楢偟偰偍傝丄戝惣梞惣晹擬懷堟偺抔悈偺塭嬁傪嫮偔庴偗傞偙偲丄帗偺弶惉弉懱挿偼146 cm乮壓妠嵆挿乯偱偁傞偙偲偑柧傜偐偵側偭偨丅傑偨丄帗偺50%惉弉懱挿丒擭楊偼180 cm丄5嵨偲悇掕偝傟偰偄偨偑丄嬤擭偺挷嵏偱偼傛傝彫宆丒庒楊偱偁傞偙偲偑曬崘偝傟偰偄傞丅


亂嶻棏偲夞梀亃

嶻棏偼惣戝惣梞擬懷丒垷擬懷堟乮僇儕僽奀乣撿暷杒惣娸乯偵偍偄偰廃擭偵傢偨偭偰峴傢傟傞偑乮恾5乯丄婫愡惈乮弔偐傜弶壞偵偐偗偰乯傕帵嵈偝傟偰偄傞丅杒戝惣梞偺儊僇僕僉偼丄婫愡偲嫟偵擬懷堟偐傜壏懷堟傊偲愛塧夞梀傪峴偆偑丄梇偼嶻棏応偐傜偁傑傝棧傟偢丄帗偺曽偑挿嫍棧夞梀傪峴偆偙偲偑嵟嬤偺尋媶偵傛偭偰巜揈偝傟偰偄傞丅傑偨丄杮庬偼庡梫側斏怋堟偲丄嶶嵼揑側婫愡惈傪帩偭偨斏怋堟媦傃旕斏怋堟偲偺娫偱惐傒暘偗傪峴偭偰偄傞偙偲偑帵嵈偝傟偰偄傞乮恾6乯丅億僢僾傾僢僾傾乕僇僀僶儖僞僌乮PSAT乯傪梡偄偨嵟怴偺抦尒偱偼丄杮庬偼嶕塧堟偵偲偳傑傞孹岦傪帵偟丄捠忢昗幆偱摼傜傟偨寢壥偲摨條偵杒惣晹偐傜杒搶晹傊偺堏摦偼傎偲傫偳尒傜傟側偄偙偲偑柧傜偐偵側偭偨丅


亂怘惈亃

惉嫑偼擔廃墧捈堏摦傪峴偄丄拫娫偼悈怺300乣400 m偵栭娫偼悈壏桇憌偺忋晹偵惗懅偡傞偙偲偑丄PSAT偺僨乕僞偐傜帵偝傟偰偍傝乮恾7乯丄堓撪梕暔偵偼丄晜嫑椶丄掙嫑椶丄怺奀嫑丄擃懱摦暔側偳暆峀偄惗暔偑弌尰偡傞偺偱丄妶敪側墧捈堏摦傪峴偄側偑傜暆峀偄悈怺懷偱曔怘妶摦傪峴偭偰偄傞偲峫偊傜傟偰偄傞丅堓撪梕暔偼婫愡丒抧棟偵傛偭偰戝偒偔堎側傞偑丄嬤擭丄僽儔僕儖撿娸偺儊僇僕僉偵偮偄偰峴傢傟偨挷嵏偱偼丄摢懌椶偑嵟傕桪愯偟偰偄傞偙偲偑曬崘偝傟偨乮Gorni et al. 2011乯丅

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亂帒尮峔憿亃

儊僇僕僉偺帒尮峔憿偵偮偄偰偼丄1990擭戙拞婜偐傜2000擭戙拞婜偵偐偗偰暘巕堚揱妛揑庤朄偵傛傞尋媶偑惛椡揑偵峴傢傟丄2006擭偵偼ICCAT偱儊僇僕僉偺帒尮峔憿偵娭偡傞儚乕僋僔儑僢僾偑奐嵜偝傟偨乮ICCAT 2006a,b乯丅夁嫀偺堦楢偺尋媶偼丄儈僩僐儞僪儕傾DNA丒妀DNA偺墫婎攝楍偺堘偄偵婎偯偒丄抧拞奀丄杒戝惣梞丄撿戝惣梞丄懢暯梞偺4偮偺撈棫偟偨宯孮偺懚嵼傪帵嵈偟偰偍傝丄ICCAT偱偼丄戝惣梞儊僇僕僉傪杒堒5搙傪嫬奅慄偲偟偰撿杒偺2宯孮偵暘偗偰娗棟偟偰偄傞乮Miyake and Rey 1989乯丅堦曽偱丄嫬奅慄偼峏偵杒乮杒堒8乣20搙偺娫乯偵偁傞偲偡傞尋媶寢壥傕曬崘偝傟偰偄傞偑乮Chow and Takeyama 2000乯丄暘愅偵嫙偟偨昗杮偺帪嬻娫揑僇僶儗僢僕偑掅偄揰偑巜揈偝傟丄嫬奅慄傪曄峏偡傞偵偼晄廫暘偱偁傞偲敾抐偝傟偰偄偨丅偦偺屻丄杒堒10乣20搙偵偍偄偰峀偔昗杮偑廂廤丒暘愅偝傟丄嫬奅慄偑杒堒15搙晅嬤偵偁傞偙偲偑帵偝傟偰偄傞偑乮Chow et al. 2007乯丄帒尮昡壙偵斀塮偝傟傞傑偱偵偼帄偭偰偄側偄丅Kasapidis et al.乮2007乯偼丄抧拞奀丄戝惣梞丄僀儞僪梞偲3偮偺庡側屄懱孮偺懚嵼傪帵偟丄拞偱傕戝惣梞偵偍偄偰偼杒偐傜撿傊峴偔偵廬偄僀儞僪梞儊僇僕僉偵屌桳偺堚揱巕傪傕偮屄懱偺妱崌偑憹壛偡傞偙偲傪柧傜偐偵偟偨丅


帒尮忬懺

2009擭偺ICCAT偺儊僇僕僉帒尮昡壙嶌嬈晹夛偵偍偄偰旕暯峵僾儘僟僋僔儑儞儌僨儖偲VPA乮僐儂乕僩夝愅乯傪梡偄偨帒尮夝愅偑峴傢傟偨丅僾儘僟僋僔儑儞儌僨儖偵偼帒尮検巜悢偲偟偰丄暷崙丄僇僫僟丄擔杮丄僗儁僀儞丄儌儘僢僐媦傃億儖僩僈儖偺偼偊撽僨乕僞傪1偮偵傑偲傔偰昗弨壔偟偨CPUE傪丄VPA偺僠儏乕僯儞僌偵偼丄帒尮朙搙巜悢偲偟偰4偐崙乮暷崙丄僇僫僟丄擔杮丄僗儁僀儞乯偺嫏嬈偺擭楊暿CPUE乮掁傝奲1,000杮摉偨傝嫏妉旜悢乯傪梡偄偨丅

旕暯峵僾儘僟僋僔儑儞儌僨儖偱寁嶼偟偨寢壥丄僶僀僆儅僗偼2000擭埲崀憹壛孹岦偵偁傝BMSY傪忋夞傞偙偲丄嫏妉巰朣棪偼1995擭傪僺乕僋偲偟偰庒姳偺憹尭偼偁傞傕偺偺尭彮孹岦傪帵偟丄2005擭埲崀偺嫏妉巰朣棪乮F乯偼FMSY乮MSY儗儀儖偱嫏妉傪峴偭偨帪偺F乯埲壓偱偁傞偙偲偑帵偝傟偨乮恾8乯丅偙傟傜偺寢壥偼丄ICCAT偺帒尮夞暅寁夋偑堦掕偺岠壥傪偁偘偨偙偲傪帵嵈偟偰偄傞丅2003擭埲崀丄TAC傪壓夞傞嫏妉検偑懕偄偨偙偲偵傛傝帒尮偑夞暅偟偨偲偡傞堦曽偱丄夞暅孹岦偑娚傗偐偱偁傞偙偲偐傜丄杮庬偺嵞惗嶻椡偼廬棃偺壖掕傛傝傕掅偔廋惓偝傟偨乮r丗0.49偐傜0.44偵廋惓乯丅VPA偵傛傞夝愅寢壥傕偍偍傓偹偙偺寢壥傪巟帩偟偰偍傝丄嶻棏恊嫑検偺僩儗儞僪偼1999擭傑偱偼尠挊側尭彮孹岦傪帵偡傕偺偺丄1999擭埲崀媫憹偟偰偍傝乮恾9乯丄嫏妉巰朣棪偼偡傋偰偺擭媺偱1996擭偛傠傑偱憹壛孹岦偵偁偭偨偑偦傟埲屻戝偒偔尭彮孹岦傪帵偟偰偄偨丅奺崙偐傜採弌偝傟偨擭楊暿偺帒尮検巜悢傕嵟嬤擭傪彍偄偰丄僩儗儞僪偼椙偔帡偰偍傝丄1990擭戙廔斦偵斾妑揑嫮偄擭媺孮偺壛擖偑偁傝丄偦傟傜偑弴挷偵嶻棏恊嫑偵惉挿偟偰偄傞偙偲傪帵偟偰偄傞丅

旕暯峵僾儘僟僋僔儑儞儌僨儖偵僽乕僩僗僩儔僢僾朄傪揔梡偟丄條乆側TAC壓偵偍偗傞僶僀僆儅僗偺彨棃梊應傪峴偭偨寢壥丄椺偊偽TAC傪14,000僩儞偵偟偨応崌丄悢擭屻偵偼F亜FMSY偲側傞妋棪偑50%埲忋偵側傞堦曽偱13,000僩儞偵偟偨応崌偵偼75%偺妋棪偱帒尮忬懺傪栚昗偲偡傞儗儀儖偵堐帩偱偒傞偙偲偑帵偝傟偨乮恾10乯丅

嵟嬤擭偺壛擖悈弨偵娭偡傞忣曬偼丄彫宆嫑偺庡偨傞忣曬尮偱偁傞崙乆偺僨乕僞採弌偑懾偭偰偄傞偙偲丄彫宆嫑嫏妉婯惂偺偨傔偺嬛嫏婜丒嬛嫏嬫偑愝掕偝傟偨偙偲摍偺棟桼偵傛傝晄懌偟偰偍傝丄椺偊偽1嵨嫑偺忣曬偼2001擭埲崀峏怴偝傟偰偄側偄丅


娗棟曽嶔

杮帒尮悈弨傪50%埲忋偺妋棪偱MSY払惉儗儀儖偵堐帩偡傞偨傔偵偼丄擭娫嫏妉検傪13,700僩儞枹枮偵惂尷偡傞傋偒偲偺姪崘偑弌偝傟偨丅偙偺嫏妉検傪弲庣偡傞偙偲偱丄尰嵼偺奀梞娐嫬媦傃嫏嬈偺忬嫷壓偱嵟戝惗嶻検偺棙梡傪払惉偡傞偙偲偑偱偒傞偲峫偊傜傟傞丅梊杊揑傾僾儘乕僠偲偟偰丄嫏妉検傪13,000僩儞偵惂尷偡傞偙偲偱丄50乣75%偺妋棪偱10擭娫偼帒尮傪寬慡側忬懺偵曐偮偙偲偑偱偒傞偲偺梊應偑摼傜傟偰偄傞丅

尰嵼丄戝惣梞慡堟偵偮偄偰丄嘆壓妠嵆挿125 cm埲壓偺嫑偺崿妉棪傪15%埲壓偵墴偝偊傞丄嘇壓妠嵆挿119 cm埲壓偺嫑偺崿妉棪傪0%偲偡傞丄偲偄偆2抜奒偺嵟彫懱挿婯惂偑偁傞丅2006乣2008擭偵杒戝惣梞偱嫏妉偝傟偨125 cm埲壓偺屄懱偺妱崌偼28%乮旜悢乯偲悇掕偝傟偰偄傞丅偨偩偟丄偙偺悇掕抣偼慡懱偺嫏妉暔偺catch at size傪巊偭偰摼傜傟偨悇掕抣偱偁傞偺偱丄夝庍偵偼拲堄偑昁梫偱偁傞丅

忋婰婯惂偁傞偄偼奺崙偑撈帺偵摫擖偟偰偄傞嫏嬈婯惂偵傛偭偰丄偄偔偮偐偺嫏嬈崙偵偍偄偰偼丄嫏妉検丄CPUE丄媦傃僒僀僘僨乕僞偺棙梡壜擻惈媦傃宲懕惈偑懝側傢傟偨寢壥丄夝愅偺幙揑側掅壓偑擣傔傜傟偰偍傝丄崱屻偺帒尮昡壙偺晄妋幚惈偵媦傏偡塭嬁偑寽擮偝傟偰偄傞丅


儊僇僕僉乮杒戝惣梞乯偺帒尮偺尰嫷乮梫栺昞乯

帒尮悈弨 拞埵
帒尮摦岦 憹壛
悽奅偺嫏妉検
乮嵟嬤5擭娫乯
乮2007乣2011擭乯
11,237乣12,463僩儞
暯嬒丗12,074僩儞
変偑崙偺嫏妉検
乮嵟嬤5擭娫乯
乮2007乣2011擭乯
723乣1,062僩儞
乮拲乯巄掕抣丅惗懚曻棳暘偼娷傑傟偰偄側偄丅
娗棟栚昗 MSY
栚昗抣 13,730乮13,020乣14,182乯僩儞
帒尮偺忬懺 B2009/BMSY丗1.05
乮0.94乣1.24乯
F2008/FMSY丗0.76
(0.67乣0.96)
娗棟慬抲 2012擭媦傃2013擭偺TAC傪13,700僩儞乮擔杮偺妱傝摉偰偼842僩儞乯偲偡傞丅崙暿妱傝摉偰偵偮偄偰丄妱傝摉偰暘傪挻夁傕偟偔偼梋偭偨応崌偵偼丄2擭埲撪偱偁傟偽嵎偟堷偒丒忋忔偣傪峴偄挷惍偡傞偙偲偑偱偒傞丅偨偩偟丄挷惍暘偼妱傝摉偰検偺25%乮妱傝摉偰偑500僩儞埲忋偺崙乯傑偨偼50%乮妱傝摉偰偑500僩儞枹枮偺崙乯傪挻偊側偄斖埻偲偡傞丅
彫宆屄懱乮壓妠嵆挿125 cm乛懱廳25 kg枹枮乯偺悈梘検傪15%埲壓偵梷偊傞偐丄壓妠嵆挿119 cm乛懱廳15 kg枹枮偺屄懱偺悈梘検傪0%偵偡傞乮搳婞検偺昡壙娷傓乯丅
娗棟婡娭丒娭學婡娭 ICCAT

幏昅幰

偐偮偍丒傑偖傠儐僯僢僩丂
偐偠偒丒偝傔僒僽儐僯僢僩
崙嵺悈嶻帒尮尋媶強 偐偮偍丒傑偖傠帒尮晹 傑偖傠嫏嬈帒尮僌儖乕僾br />

愬攇丂桋巕丒梋愳丂峗懢榊


嶲峫暥專

  1. CChow, S., and Takeyama, H. 2000. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal four genetically separated breeding units of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius). J. Fish Biol. 56:1087-1098.
  2. Chow, S. Clarke, S. Nakadate, M. and Okazaki, M. 2007. Boundary between the north and south Atlantic populations of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) inferred by a single nucleotide polymorphism at calmodulin gene intron. Mar. Biol. 152:87-93.
  3. Eharhardt, N. M., Robbins, R. J., and Arocha, F. 1996. Age validation and growth of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in the northwest Atlantic. ICCAT SCRS/95/99. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 45 (2): 358-367.
  4. Gorni, G. R. Loibel, S., Goitein, R., and Amorim, A. F. 2011. Stomach contents analysis of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught off southern Brazil: A Baysian analysis. , ICCAT SCRS/2011/134
  5. ICCAT. 2006a. 8 Executive summaries on species. 8.8 SWO-ATL-Atlantic swordfish. In ICCAT (ed.), Report of the standing committee on research and statistics (SCRS) (Madrid, Spain, October 2 to 6, 2006). PLE-014/2006. 83-91 pp. http://www.iccat.int/Documents/Meetings/Docs/PLE-014%20EN.pdf 乮2008擭10寧31擔乯
  6. ICCAT. 2006b. Report of the 2006 Atlantic swordfish stock assessment session (Madrid, September 4 to 8, 2006). SCRS/2006/015. http://www.iccat.int/Documents/Meetings/Docs/SCI-040%20EN.pdf 乮2008擭10寧31擔乯
  7. ICCAT. 2009. Report of the 2009 Atlantic swordfish stock assessment session (Madrid, September 7 to 11, 2009). SCRS/2009/016. http://www.iccat.int/Documents/Meetings/Docs/2009_SWO_ASSESS_ENG.pdf
  8. ICCAT. 2012. 8 Executive summaries on species..8.9 SWO-ATL-Atlantic swordfish. In ICCAT (ed.), Report of the standing committee on research and statistics (SCRS) (Madrid, Spain, October 1 to 5, 2012). 142-159 pp.
  9. Kasapidis, P., Valeiras, X., García-Cortés, B., Magoulas, A., and Mejuto, J. 2007. Genetic and growth profiles of several specimens of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) tagged and recaptured in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. ICCAT. SCRS/2007/120
  10. Matsumoto, T., Saito, H., and Miyabe, N. 2003. Report of observer program for Japanese tuna longline fishery in the Atlantic Ocean from September 2001 to March 2002. SCRS/2002/140. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 55(4): 1679-1718.
  11. Mejuto, J., and García-Cortés, B. 2007. Reproductive activity of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Atlantic ocean on the basis of different macroscopic indicators. ICCAT. SCRS/2007/111
  12. Miyake, P. M., and Rey, J. C. 1989. Status of Atlantic broadbill swordfish stocks. In Stroud R. H. (ed.), Planning the Future of Billfishes Part I 115-136 pp. National Coalition for Marine Conservation Incorporation, Athens, Georgia., USA.
  13. Ortiz, M., Restrepo, V., and Turner, S. C. 2000. North Atlantic swordfish sex-ratios at size keys: Analysis and development. SCRS/1999/083. Col. Vol. Sci. Pap. ICCAT, 51 (5): 1480-1508.